Bibliography on synthesizers, Midi, Computer and Electronic Music

Version: $Id: bibliography,v 1.40 1997/07/03 12:39:13 piet Exp $
This is a bibliography on synthesizers, midi, computer and electronic music that I have collected from various sources. I have tried to bring some structure into it, but not all books will fit into a single subject. NOTE: I haven't read these books, and the comments are from other people. On some of them I lost the original commentor's name. Sorry about that. If you have additions or correction to this information, please mail me. The latest version of this file can be obtained here or by mail (send a message with HELP in the body).

There is a more scientifically-oriented bibliography available in the Computer Music Journal archives, on the MIT, or Stanford's CCRMA ftp sites. Some references in this file that belong in that category will be removed in the future.

A bibliography on alternate tunings can be found on the Mills College ftp site.

Table of contents:


The most-up-to-date printed specs for General MIDI, MIDI, and the MIDI file format can also be obtained for a few bucks from:
International MIDI Association
23634 Emelita Street
Woodland Hills, California 91367 USA

Title: Computer music in C / Phil Winsor & Gene DeLisa. Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, PA : TAB Books (Windcrest label), c1991. Subjects: Computer sound processing. Computer composition. C (Computer program language) Midi programming ISBN: 0-8306-3637-4 (p) : $22.95 It has a C source disk for the PC available for $25.
Title: Mind over MIDI / edited by Dominic Milano ; by the editors of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1987. Series: The Keyboard magazine basic library Or: Keyboard synthesizer library. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. ISBN: 0-88188-551-7 (pbk.) : $12.95
The book consists mostly of reprints of KEYBOARD magazine articles from the early-mid '80s plus several appendixes containing the MIDI 1.0 specification, a list of references, a glossary, etc.

Title: Macworld Music and Sound Bible / Christopher Yavelow Publisher: IDG books, 1993 (probably out of print) Subjects: Computer sound processing. MIDI Macintosh computers--Programming. ISBN: 1-878058-18-5
Title: MIDI- und sound-buch zum Atari ST. English Title: MIDI and sound book for the Atari ST / Bernd Enders and Wolfgang Klemme. Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M & T Pub., c1989. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Computer sound processing. MIDI (Standard) Atari ST computers--Programming. ISBN: 1-55851-042-7 : $17.95
Title: Atari ST Introduction to MIDI Programming / Len Dorfman and Dennis Young ISBN: 0-916439-77-1 Publisher: Bantam Books,Inc.: 666 5th Avenue New York,New York 10103
Title: Music through MIDI : using MIDI to create your own electronic music system / Michael Boom. Publisher: Redmond, Wash. : Microsoft Press, c1987. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study. Subjects: Computer sound processing. ISBN: 1-55615-026-1 (pbk.) : $19.95
Title: The MIDI drummer : by a drummer for a drummer-- / by David Crigger. Publisher: Newbury Park, CA : Alexander Pub., c1987. Subjects: Electronic percussion instruments--Instruction and study. MIDI (Standard)
Title: MIDI for guitarists / by Bob Ward and Marty Cutler ; Publisher: London ; New York : Amsco Publications ; New York, NY, USA : Exclusive distributors Music Sales Corp., c1988. Subjects: Electric guitar--Instruction and study. MIDI (Standard) ISBN: 0-8256-1126-1 (U.S.)
Title: MIDI for musicians / by Craig Anderton. Publisher: New York : Amsco Publications, c1986. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. ISBN: 0-8256-1050-8 (pbk.) ISBN: 0-8256-2214-X (pbk. : cover)
Title: MIDI guitar : a complete applications directory for the modern guitarist / [by Rey Sanchez ; forward [sic] by Randy Bernsen]. Publisher: Miami, FL : CPP/Belwin, c1988. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. Electric guitar. ISBN: 0-89898-544-7 : $15.95
Title: Midi guitar and synthesis : the basics of guitar synthesis / by Paul Youngblood. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Pub. Co., c1989. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. Electric guitar. ISBN: 0-88188-886-9 : $14.95
Title: The MIDI home studio / by Howard Massey. Publisher: London ; New York : Amsco Publications ; New York, NY, USA : Music Sales Corp. [distributor], c1988. ISBN: 0-8256-1127-X (U.S.)
Title: The MIDI manual / David Miles Huber. Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. Sams, c1991. ISBN: 0-672-22757-6, 250pp.
Title: Making music with your computer / from the editors of Electronic musician magazine ; edited by David (Rudy) Trubitt. Publisher: Emeryville, CA : EMBooks ; [Milwaukee, WI] : H. Leonard, 1993. Subjects: Computer music --Instruction and study. MIDI (Standard) ISBN: 079351990X (pbk.) NOTE: "A practical guide to: MIDI, digital recording, music software, sequencing, notation"
Title: The Desktop musician, Creating music with your computer / David M. Rubin Publisher: Osborne/Mac-Graw Hill Berkeley 1995 NOTE: includes a CD with demos for PC/MAC
Title: The MIDI programmer's handbook / Steve De Furia and Joe Scacciaferro, Ferro Technologies. Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Pub., c1989. ISBN: 1-55851-068-0, 250 pp. Paperback. $24.95 Mix Bookshelf part # 3539C
This book is now out of print

New, advanced MIDI desk reference is perfect for programmers and MIDI power users. The heart of the book is a summary and explanation of every MIDI command, in hex, binary, decimal and English. Also features detailed discussion of software design concerns, synchronization formats, MTC, sample dump, MIDI files and system exclusive processing.

It discusses writing software to handle MIDI information at the application level. In other words, they assume you have already written or otherwise obtained access to the necessary code to talk to your hardware to send and receive the MIDI data. This approach frees the entire discussion from being tied to any particular hardware or programming approach. Instead, it spends its time on that which is valuable to the experienced programmer. Issues such as MIDI file format, timing (SMPTE, MTC, etc), parsing MIDI data and processing it, MIDI sample dump standard, etc. are all handled in fine detail.


Contains complete documentation of MIDI commands implemented by more than 200 instruments. This data has come directly from hardware manufacturers and allows you to find MIDI functions of specific instruments, compare features of similar instruments and choose equipment to meet specific applications. A standard, one-page implementation chart is used for each product. ISBN ISBN 0-88188-558-4, 1986, 216 pp. $19.95

Mix Bookshelf, 1-800-233-9604 (US & Canada). Doesn't say who publishes it, and its terribly out-dated (1986), but they might have published another addition by now.

The MIDI System Exclusive Book by Steve De Furia and Joe Scacciaferra, Third Earth Productions, Pompton Lakesm N.J. Distributed by Hal Leonard Books. ISBN ISBN 0-88188-586-x (1987)

The MIDI Resource Book. Same guys. ISBN 0-88188-587-8

Title: MIDI programming for the Macintosh / Steve De Furia and Joe Scacciaferro. Publisher: Redwood City, CA : M&T Books, 1988. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. Macintosh (Computer)--Programming. ISBN: 1-55851-021-4 : $22.95 ISBN: 1-55851-022-2 (book & disk) : $39.95 ISBN: 1-55851-023-0 (disk) : $20.00
Title: C Programming for MIDI / Jim Conger. Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989. 501 Galveston Drive Redwood City, CA 94063 Subjects: MIDI, C, sequencing
This book shows how to use the basic features of an MPU-401 interface. Includes a disk with MS-DOS code.

Title: MIDI sequencing in C / Jim Conger. Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989. 501 Galveston Drive Redwood City, CA 94063 Subjects: MIDI (Standard) C (Computer program language) Sequential processing (Computer science) ISBN: 1-55851-045-1 (book) : $24.95 ISBN: 1-55851-047-8 (disk) : $20.00 ISBN: 1-55851-046-X (set) : $39.95
This book continues where the provious one lefts off.

Title: MIDI systems and control / Francis Rumsey. Publisher: London ; Boston : Focal Press, 1990. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. ISBN: 0-240-51300-2 : $14.95 (U.S.)
Title: MIDI, the ins, outs & thrus / by Jeff Rona ; edited by Ronny S. Schiff. Publisher: Milwaukee, Wis. : H. Leonard Books, c1987. Notes: "A complete guide to the understanding, use, and buying of MIDI instruments"--Cover. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Computer sound processing. ISBN: 0-88188-560-6 (pbk.) : $12.95
Title: MIDI : a comprehensive introduction / Joseph Rothstein. Publisher: Madison, Wis. : A-R Editions, c1992. Subjects: MIDI (Standard) Series: The Computer music and digital audio series ; v. 7 ISBN: 0-89579-258-3 : $39.95
Title: Making the Most of Midi / by Paul Overaa Publisher: Bookmark Publishing (+44 (0)1525 713671) Subjects: General MIDI; programming MIDI messages. ISBN: 1-85550-006-X : UKP 14.95

Microsoft Press put out a book on midi programming. I think that this is rather a weak book, but it might serve as an introduction for non-computer folk.
Several other books are out that were written by musicians. They are interesting as a intro to using midi, but contain a dearth of info from my perspective. As a programmer, I have the wrong perspective to sort these out.
Real Time MIDI performance interfaces
	Dannenberg, " accompaniment..."  ICMC87, ICMC85(??)
	(maybe "Bloch and Dannenberg", don't have it handy)
	X. Chabot ??


    Title: Build a better music synthesizer / Thomas Henry.
Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, PA : Tab Books, c1987.
 Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Construction.6
     ISBN: 0-8306-0255-0 : $17.95
     ISBN: 0-8306-2755-3 (pbk.) : $11.45

Title: Musical applications of microprocessors, 2nd ed. / Hal Chamberlin. Publisher: Hasbrouck Heights, N.J. : Hayden Book Co., c1985. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Subjects: Computer composition. Subjects: Microprocessors. ISBN: 0-8104-5768-7
I have seen two editions: mine from the early 80's, and a hardback that my friend has from the late 80's. His has 68000 assember for an FFT routine.

This covers analog and digital sound synthesis from an experimenter's perspective, not much math, lots of algorithms and circuits. If you want to solder and program in your garage and make lots of weird sounds, this is the bible. Lots of BASIC programs, but they're very short, just to demonstrate algorithms. It's a few years old now and the electronic devices used in the book are dated, but the explanations and principles are still valid. It discusses things such as real time synthesis, play back of stored soundwaves, sampling, running multiple D-As in parallel, software for computing soundwaves (it even covers Fast Fourier Transforms) and more.

Title: Computer music : synthesis, composition, and performance / Charles Dodge, Thomas A. Jerse. Publisher: New York : Schirmer Books, c1985. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Computer composition. ISBN: 0-02-873100-X
Title: Elements of computer music / F. Richard Moore. Publisher: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c1990. Subjects: Computer sound processing. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. ISBN: 0-13-252552-6
Lots of stuff on software synthesis, and more, all centered around cmusic
This book is very good: "A synthesist's Guide to Acoustic Instruments" Amsco Publications,New York, 1987
author: H.Massey
I found the Howard Massey "Synthesists Guide to Acoustic Instruments" to be a pretty good book for general synthesizer knowledge, mostly because it doesn't try to explain the specifics of a synth. ...David Elliott | ...!{uunet,mips}!sonyusa!dce

Schottstaedt, Bill. "The Simulation of Natural Instrument Tones Using Frequency Modulation with a Complex Modulating Wave." Computer Music Journal 1, 4 (1977): 46-50. also in: Roads, Curtis and John Strawn, ed.The Foundations of Computer Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985.
J. Chowning "The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation" J. Audio Eng. Soc. 21, no. 7 (1973):526-534 [This is the standard reference.]
J. Chowning and D. Bristow "FM Theory and Applications by Musicians for Musicians" Yamaha Music Foundation, Tokyo, 1986 ISBN 4-636-17482-8 [Could be difficult to find. Maybe Mix bookshelf - see above]
Marc LeBrun "A derivation of the Spectrum of FM with a Complex Modulating Wave." Computer Music Journal Volume 1, Number 4. 1977, pages 51-52. Also in Roads and Strawn, Foundations of Computer Music.
Marc LeBrun "Digital Waveshaping Synthesis" Journal of the AES, 27(4), 1979: 250-266
J.A. Moorer "The synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Discrete Summation Formulae" Music Department, Stanford U., 1975 (Report no. STAN-M-5.)
Moore, F. Richard. "Table Lookup Noise for Sinusoidal Digital Oscillators." Computer Music Journal 1, 2 (1977): 26-29. Reprinted in Curtis Roads, ed. _Foundations of Computer Music_ (MIT Press, 1985).
Chareyron, J. "Digital Synthesis of Self-modifying Waveforms by Means of Linear Automata", Computer Music Journal, Vol 14 No. 4, 1990.
    Title: The Art of Noises / Luigi Russolo.
Publisher: Pendragon Press, Stuyvesant, New York, 1986.
     ISBN: 0-918728-57-6.

Title: Formalized Music, Revised edition / Iannis Xenakis Publisher: Pendragon Press, Stuyvesant, New York, 1992. ISBN: 0-945192-24-6.
Title: The synthesizer / John Bates. Publisher: Oxford : Oxford University Press, Music Dept., 1988. Series Name: Oxford topics in music Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Juvenile literature. Musical instruments, Electronic--Juvenile literature. Computer music--History and criticism--Juvenile literature. Synthesizer (Musical instrument) Musical instruments, Electronic. Computer music--History and criticism. ISBN: 0-19-321337-0
Title: The synthesizer and electronic keyboard handbook / David Crombie ; [foreword by Thomas Dolby]. Publisher: New York, N.Y. : Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1984. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Instruction and study. Electronic keyboard (Synthesizer) ISBN: 0-394-72711-8 (pbk.) : $13.95 ISBN: 0-394-54084-0 : $25.00
Title: Synthesizer basics / by Dean Friedman. Publisher: New York : Amsco Publications : Exclusive distributor, Music Sales Corp., c1986. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 0-8256-2409-6 (pbk.)
Title: Synthesizer basics / by the editors of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Pub. Corp., c1984. Series Name: The Keyboard synthesizer library ; v. 1 Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Instruction and study. Electronic music--Instruction and study. ISBN: 0-88188-289-5 (pbk.) : $8.95
Title: Synthesizer basics / edited by Brent Hurtig from the pages of Keyboard magazine. (rev. ed) Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1988. Series Name: The Keyboard magazine basic library Notes: Cover subtitle: The musician's reference for creating, performing, and recording electronic music. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Instruction and study. Electronic music--Instruction and study. ISBN: 0-88188-714-5 (pbk.) : $12.95
Title: Synthesizer orchestration : a creative approach for the arranger and synthesist includes cassette recording of musical examples / by Steve Quinzi. Publisher: Miami Fla. : Studio 224, c1987.
Title: Synthesizer programming / edited by Dominic Milano ; by the editors of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : Hal Leonard Books, c1987. Series Name: Keyboard synthesizer library Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 0-88188-550-9 (pbk.)
Title: Synthesizer technique / by the editors of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1987. Series Name: The Keyboard synthesizer library Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 0-88188-715-3 (pbk.) : $12.95
Title: Casio FZ-1 & FZ-10M digital sampling synthesizer : the essential guide to practical applications / Joe Scacciaferro, Steve DeFuria. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI, USA : Hal Leonard Books, c1988. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 0-88188-967-9 : $14.95
Title: Synthesizermusik und Live-Elektronik : geschichtliche, technologische, kompositorische und padagogische Aspekte der elektronischen Musik / Gunther Batel, Dieter Salbert. Publisher: Wolfenbuttel : Moseler, c1985. Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study. Computer music--Instruction and study. Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 3-7877-3534-8
Title: Synthesizers and computers / by the editors of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Pub. Corp., c1985. Series Name: The Keyboard synthesizer library ; v. 3 Notes: Contributions by Bob Moog and others.
Title: Synthesizers and computers / edited by Brent Hurtig. Publisher: Milwaukee, Wis. : H. Leonard Pub. Corp., c1987. Series Name: Keyboard magazine basic library Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Synthesizer (Musical instrument) MIDI (Standard) ISBN: 0-88188-716-1 (pbk.) : $12.95
Title: Electronic music: a handbook of sound synthesis & control [by] M. L. Eaton. Publisher: [Kansas City, Mo., ORCUS, 1969] Series Name: ORCUS technical publication, TP-3003 Subjects: Electro-acoustics. Electronic music--Instruction and study.
Title: Electronic music circuits / by Barry Klein. Publisher: Indianapolis, Ind. : H.W. Sams, c1982. Series Name: Blacksburg continuing education series Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument)--Construction. Electronic circuits. ISBN: 0-672-21833-X (pbk.) : $16.95
Title: Electronic projects for musicians / by Craig Anderton Publisher: Saratoga, CA : Guitar Player Productions, c1975. Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. ISBN: 0-89122-011-9 : $6.95
Title: Electronic music synthesizers / by Delton T. Horn. Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. : Tab Books, c1980. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) ISBN: 0-8306-9722-5 : $9.95 ISBN: 0-8306-1167-3 (pbk.) : $5.95
Title: Electronic music technology / NRI. Publisher: Washington, D.C. : McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center, c1988. Subjects: Oscillators, Electric--Programmed instruction. Musical instruments, Electronic--Programmed instruction.
Author: Kettelkamp, Larry. Title: Electronic musical instruments : what they do, how they work / Larry Kettelkamp ; foreword by Herbert Deutsch. Publisher: New York : W. Morrow, 1984. Notes: Explains the principles of electronic music, discusses the uses of such electronic instruments as oscillators, synthesizers, electronic organs, and sound processors, and gives advice on performing and recording electronic music. Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. Musical instruments, Electronic. Electronic music. ISBN: 0-688-02781-4
Title: The Art of electronic music / compiled by Tom Darter ; edited by Greg Armbruster. Publisher: New York : Quill, c1984. Notes: "...Edited from material originally published in Keyboard magazine from 1975 to 1983"--T.p. verso. Subjects: Electronic music--History and criticism. Musical instruments, Electronic. Synthesizer (Musical instrument) Musicians--Interviews. ISBN: 0-688-03106-4 (pbk.) : $15.95 ISBN: 0-688-03105-6
Title: The liberation of sound : an introduction to electronic music / by Herbert Russcol ; new introduction by Otto Luening ; preface by Jacques Barzun. Publisher: New York : Da Capo Press, 1994. Series : Da Capo Press music reprint series Notes: Reprint. Originally published: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Subjects: Electronic music--History and criticism. ISBN: 0-306-76263-3 : $35.00


Moorer, James A. and Grey, John: "Lexicon of Analyzed Tones"; Computer Music Journal, volume 1 Number 2, volume 1 number 3, volume 2 number 2, volume 2 number 3, and continuing

The first installment of the lexicon was an analysis of a violin tone. The second analyzed Clarinet and Oboe tones, and the third presented an analysis of a trumpet tone.

These analyses included spectral plots (time versus amplitude for the first 21 partials), spectrographic plots (frequency versus amplitude), and amplitude and frequency versus time plots for the first sixteen partials. Additional information is given about formants of the instruments and the analysis and resynthesis methods which the authors used (The analysis was done with a Heterodyne Filter algorithm). While the authors claim that the tones were resynthesized and were nearly indistinguishable from the originals, they ARE only single, specific notes played on a specific example of the original instrument, so, while they would be a good starting point for re-synthesis of an instrument, they are by no means sufficient.

    Title: The acoustical foundations of music / John Backus.
  Edition: 2d ed.
Publisher: New York : Norton, c1977.
 Subjects: Music--Acoustics and physics.
     ISBN: 0-393-09096-5 : $10.95

Author : Douglas, Alan Title : Electronic Musical Instrument Manual Published: Pitman, London, 1968 Originally published in 1947 !! So this is a historical book


    Title: Electronic music composition for beginners / Robert Train
Publisher: Dubuque, Iowa : Wm. C. Brown, c1986.
Subjects: Electronic composition.
     ISBN: 0-697-00457-0 (pbk.)

Title: Automated music composition / Phil Winsor. Publisher: North Texas Press, c1989. 312 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Subjects: Computer composition. Computer music--Instruction and study. BASIC (Computer program language)
Title: Computer composer's toolbox / Phil Winsor. Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, PA : Windcrest, c1990. Subjects: Computer composition. BASIC (Computer program language) ISBN: 0830633847 : $19.95


Languages for Computer Music/Real Time Control
	Mathews (The Music "N" languages) (No reference handy)
	Dannenberg et al, "Arctic...", CMJ 10(4)
	Dannenberg "Canon", CMJ???, "Fugue" ICMC89

TITLE: The music machine : selected readings from "Computer music journal" / ed. by Curtis Roads IMPRINT: Cambridge, Masschusetts, [etc.] : MIT Press, 1989 * XIV, 725 p. : ill. ; 26 cm NAMES: Roads, Curtis ISBN: 0-262-18131-2 m

The PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER MUSIC CONFERENCE, an annual volume published by the International Computer Music Association. San Francisco: ICMA, 2040 Polk St., Suite 330, San Francisco, CA 94109; USA. email: tel: 817-566-2235 fax: 817-565-4919.
 TITLE:   Informatique et musique : session musicologique de l'International
          computer music conference organisee par l'equipe ERATTO [a] Paris,
          IRCAM, 24 octobre 1984 / [textes reunis et presentes par Helene
 IMPRINT: Ivry-sur-Seine : Elmeratto, 1988 * 145 p. ; 30 cm
 SERIES:  Publications Elmeratto
 NAMES:   Charnasse, Helene * (1984 ; Parijs)
 ISBN:    2-902671-07-5 m

AUTHOR: Manning, Peter TITLE: Electronic and computer music / [by] Peter Manning EDITION: Repr. IMPRINT: Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1988 * VI, 292 p. : ill. ; 22 cm ISBN: 0-19-311923-4 m p * 0-19-311918-8 v
AUTHOR: Davis, Deta S. TITLE: Computer applications in music : a bibliography / [by] Deta S. Davis IMPRINT: Madison, Wisconsin : A-R Editions, 1988 * XVIII, 537 p. ; 24 cm SERIES: The computer music and digital audio series ; vol. 4 ISBN: 0-89579-225-7 $49.95 TITLE: Computer applications in music : a bibliography, supplement 1 / Deta S. Davis. SERIES: The Computer music and digital audio series ; v. 10
AUTHOR: Bartle, Barton K. TITLE: Computer software in music and music education : a guide / by Barton K. Bartle IMPRINT: Metuchen, N.J., [etc.] : Scarecrow Press, 1987 * XIV, 252 p. ; 22 cm ISBN: 0-8108-2056-0 m
TITLE: Foundations of computer music / ed. by Curtis Roads [and] John Strawn EDITION: 3rd print. IMPRINT: Cambridge, Massachusetts, [etc.] : MIT Press, 1987 NAMES: Roads, Curtis * Strawn, John ISBN: 0-262-68051-3 (paper) 0-262-18114-2 (hard)
TITLE: Computer music / [ed.-in-chief: Anthony I. Wasserman] IMPRINT: New York : ACM, 1985 * 120 p. : ill. ; 26 cm SERIES: Computing surveys ; vol. 17, nr. 2. 0360-0300 NAMES: Wasserman, Anthony I.
Title: Computer Music Association source book : activities and resources in computer music / compiled and edited by Craig R. Harris and Stephen T. Pope. Publisher: [San Francisco, CA, USA] (P.O. Box 1634, San Francisco 94101-1634) : The Association, c1987. Subjects: Computer Music Association--Directories. Computer music--Directories. Computer music--History and criticism--Bibliography.
Title: Computers and musical style / David Cope. Publisher: Madison, Wis. : A-R Editions, c1991. Series: The Computer music and digital audio series ; v. 6 Subjects: Computer composition. ISBN: 0-89579-256-7 (hardcover)
The book includes (LISP) source code to significant parts of his EMI system (Experiments in Musical Intelligence). For the non-technical reader there is a brief introduction to LISP programming. There are numerous examples of programs applied to examples from musical literature, (Bach, Mozart, Schubert, Stravinsky and many others). The program produces an analysis of the regularities in two or more pieces of the same style and uses these as "signiatures" to generate a new piece in that style. Cope's methodology is derived from a mixture of classical AI (or rule based) models and linguistic grammars (Augmented Transition Network).

The results are interesting and can be remarkable. But I have to add that there are significant problems with the methods. The system seems good at capturing very local phenomena, (such as cadence formulae), but is ill-conditioned for capturing more global aspects of musical structure (such as melodic coherence, harmonic interest, &c). These problems have been acknowledged by the author but I think they are unsolvable in the current working paradigm.

Michael Casey <>

    Title: New music composition / David Cope.
Publisher: New York : Schirmer Books, c1977.
 Subjects: Composition (Music)
     ISBN: 0-02-870630-7

Ames, C. 1982, Protocol: Motivation, Design and Production of a Composition for Solo Piano, "Interface", 2:11.

Cope, D., 1987, An Expert System for Computer-Assisted Composition, "Computer Music Journal", 11:4.

Loy, G., 1985, Programming with Computers- a Survey of Some Compositional Formalisms and Music Programming Languages, in "Current Directions in Computer Music Research", ed. Max Matthews and John Pierce, Cambridge: MIT press.

Loy, G. 1991, Connectionism and Musiconomy, "International Computer Music Conference Proceedings", CMA, 1991.

Schottstaedt, W., 1989, Automatic Counterpoint, in "Current Directions in Computer Music Research", ed. Max Matthews and John Pierce, Cambridge: MIT press.

Todd, P., 1989, A Connectionist Approach to Algorithmic Composition, "Computer Music Journal", 13:4.

Winograd, T., 1968, Linguistics and the Computer Analysis of Tonal Harmony, "Journal of Music Theory", 12:1


MUSIC AND CONNECTIONISM is now available from MIT Press. This 280-pp. book contains a wide variety of recent research in the applications of neural networks and other connectionist methods to the problems of musical listening and understanding, performance, composition, and aesthetics. It consists of a core of articles that originally appeared in the Computer Music Journal, along with several new articles by Kohonen, Mozer, Bharucha, and others, and new addenda to the original articles describing the authors' most recent work. Topics covered range from models of psychological processing of pitches, chords, and melodies, to algorithmic composition and performance factors. A wide variety of connectionist models are employed as well, including back-propagation in time, Kohonen feature maps, ART networks, and Jordan- and Elman-style networks. We've also included a discussion generated by the Computer Music Journal articles on the use and place of connectionist systems in artistic endeavors. A more detailed description of the book is provided below (from the jacket text), along with the complete table of contents.

MUSIC AND CONNECTIONISM can be found in bookstores that carry MIT Press publications, or can be purchased directly from MIT Press by calling their toll-free order number, 1-800-356-0343, and giving the operator this catalog number: 1CSAT 503, and this book code: TODMH. By phone and mail-order, the price is $39.95; in stores, it will probably be $45 (there is some confusion with the publisher on this point, so I wanted to give out the detailed information for phone orders to save people some money).

Music and Connectionism, edited by Peter M. Todd and D. Gareth Loy

As one of our highest expressions of thought and creativity, music has always been a difficult realm to capture, model, and understand. The connectionist paradigm, now beginning to provide insights into many realms of human behavior, offers a new and unified viewpoint from which to investigate the subtleties of musical experience. Music and Connectionism provides a fresh approach to both fields, using techniques of connectionism and parallel distributed processing to look at a wide range of topics in music research, from pitch perception to chord fingering to composition.

The contributors, leading researchers in both music psychology and neural networks, address the challenges and opportunities of musical applications of network models. The result is a current and thorough survey that advances our understanding of musical perception, cognition, composition, and performance and of the design and analysis of networks.

Music and Connectionism is based on a core of articles originally appearing as two special issues of the Computer Music Journal. These have been augmented with addenda covering more recent research by the authors. The book opens with tutorial chapters introducing neural networks in a musical context and relevant aspects of previous computer music research, making this a self-contained text. There are many new chapters, along with new section introductions, summaries of related work, and a final debate on the artistic implications of connectionist methods.

Peter M. Todd is a doctoral candidate in the PDP Research Group of the Psychology Department at Stanford University. Gareth Loy DMA is an award-winning composer, member of the Board of Directors of the Computer Music Association, lecturer in the Music Department of UC San Diego, and member of the technical staff of Frox Inc.


BOOK ANNOUNCEMENT: Representations of Musical Signals, edited by Giovanni De Poli, Aldo Piccialli, and Curtis Roads

Published by MIT Press, 1991
ISBN 0-262-04113-8, 478 pages, hardcover, US$ 50.00

Representations of Musical Signals describes a new generation of digital audio and computer music systems made possible by recent advances in digital signal processing theory, hardware design, and programming techniques. It explores new representations of musical signals that can have profund effects on the way musicians conceive of and realize musical ideas. In particular, the book focuses on models that combine time-domain and frequency-domain representations (grains, wavelets, and physical models), visual programming and advanced user interfaces, and that incorporate musical knowledge using artificial intelligence techniques and adaptive neural net- works. The 14 contributions take up issues of how musical signals should be displayed to musicians, engineers, and scientists who want to work with them, how professionals can work with the representations to accomplish musical tasks, how systems can be designed to permit working with multiple views of the same signal, and how representa- tions of musical signals should be organized to promote efficient communication between devices using these signals.

Representations of Musical Signals is aimed at the expanding group of musicians, engineers, and scientists who are interested in innovative approache to digital audio and computer music. We expect that this book will be useful in undergraduate and graduate courses in computer music, musical acoustics, and digital audio signal processing. Giovanni De Poli is a member of the faculty of the Department of Electronics and Informatics at the University of Padua. Aldo Piccialli is a member of the faculty of the Department of Physics at the University of Naples. Curtis Roads is a composer and consulting editor of Computer Music Journal.


     Contributors                                             xi
     Preface                                                xiii
     MUSICAL SIGNALS                                           1
     Overview                                                  3
     A. Piccialli
1    Timbre Analysis by Synthesis: Representations,
     limitations, and Variants for Musical
     Composition                                               7
     J.C. Risset
2    Application of Time-Frequency and Time-Scale
     Methods (Wavelet Transforms) to the Analysis,
     Synthesis, and Transformation of Natural
     Sounds                                                   45
     R. Kronland-Martinet and A. Grossman
3    Analysis, Transformation, and Resynthesis of
     Musical Sounds with the Help of a Time-Frequency
     Representation                                           87
     D. Arfib
4    Wavelet Transforms that We Can Play                     119
     G. Evangelista
     Overview                                                139
     G. De Poli
5    Asynchronous Granular Synthesis                         143
     C. Roads
6    Pitch-Synchronous Granular Synthesis                    187
     G. De Poli and A. Piccialli
     Overview                                                223
     G. De Poli
7    The Physical Model: Modeling and Simulating the
     Instrumental Universe                                   227
     J. Florens and C. Cadoz
8    The Missing Link: Modal Synthesis                       269
     J.-M. Adrien
9    Synthesizing Singing                                    299
     J. Sundberg
     MUSICAL SIGNALS                                         321
     Overview                                                323
     C. Roads
10   Music, Signals, and Representations: A Survey           325
     uy Garnett
11   An Object-based Representation for Digital
     Audio Signals                                           371
12   New Generation Architectures for Music and
     Sound Processing                                        391
     S. Cavaliere
     OF MUSICAL SIGNALS                                      413
     Overview                                                415
     A. Piccialli
13   Understanding Music Cognition: A Connectionist View     417
     C. Lischka
14   Qualitative Aspects of Signal Processing Through
     Dynamic Neural Networks                                 447
     R. D'Autilia and F. Guerra
     Name Index                                              463
     Subject Index                                           467

Date: Tue, 4 Aug 92 11:16 MET
Subject: New book on Computer Music, Music Cognition and AI


The research presented in "Music, Mind and Machine: Studies in Computer Music, Music Cognition and Artificial Intelligence" by Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing finds its basis in the fields of musicology, psychology and computer science. Nowadays each of these domains is linked to the other in various research disciplines. In computer music, ways to design machines to make music are explored. In music cognition, mental processes that perceive and apprehend music are investigated. In artificial intelligence the mind is approached as a machine - and machines are built to learn more about the mind.

The articles collected in this volume focus on the perception and representation of musical time and temporal structure, commonly identified as a research area crucial to the understanding of the complex processes that enable us to enjoy and perform music. Most of the theories are illustrated with small concrete computer programs. As such it could serve as a text book for courses in the field of computer music and music cognition.

Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing have collaborated for the last seven years at the City University, London and the Centre for Knowledge Technology, Utrecht. They combine their different backgrounds in computer science, psychology, and music, and share a fascination with the computational modelling approach to music perception and performance. Peter Desain currently works on rhythm perception at the University of Nijmegen, Henkjan Honing does research on the formalisation of musical knowledge at the University of Amsterdam.


I Overview
        Tempo curves considered harmful
II Perception
        The quantization problem: traditional and connectionist approaches
        Quantization of musical time: a connectionist approach
        A connectionist and a traditional AI quantizer, symbolic versus
                sub-symbolic models of rhythm perception
        A (de)composable theory of rhythm perception
        Autocorrelation and the study of musical expression
III Representation
        Issues in the representation of time and structure in music
        Time functions function best as functions of multiple times
        Towards a calculus for expressive timing in music
IV Methodology
        Lisp as a second language: functional aspects
        Parsing the Parser, a case study in programming style
        LOCO: a composition microworld in logo
        POCO: an environment for analysing, modifying, and
                generating expression in music


"Music, Mind and Machine" by Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing. ISBN 90 5170 149 7, 330 pp., paperback, price US$ 25/Dfl. 45/Bfr. 900. All major credits cards accepted. Postage and handling will be charged additionally. It is available from:
Thesis Publishers, PO Box 14791,
1001 LG Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Tel. (31) 20 - 62 55 429/Fax (31) 20 - 62 03 395
i.d.b., Ltd., 24 Hudson Street, Kinderhook, NY 12106
Tel. Toll free 1 800 343 3531 or (518) 758 1411
Fax (518) 758 1959

From: (Robert Rowe)
Subject: Book Announcement: Interactive Music Systems
Date: 28 Oct 92 21:43:55 GMT

Interactive Music Systems, Machine Listening and Composing, by Robert Rowe

For the growing number of professionals in computer music -- composers, performers, and teachers -- who are looking for more from the computer music systems that are now available, Interactive Music Systems provides the first comprehensive survey and evaluation of new computer programs that can analyze and compose music in live performance.

Although Rowe focuses primarily on musical motivations and possibilities of interactive systems, he also takes up such practical considerations as how to build, analyze, and extend these systems, and he looks at the impact of music theory, music cognition, and artificial intelligence on the design of interactive systems and on ensemble performance. He describes in detail both the theory and practice of his own real-time interactive music program, Cypher, and further illustrates basic concepts and characteristic issues using the graphic MIDI programming environment Max.

In a concluding chapter, Rowe assesses developments in hardware and software with implications for the evolution of interactive systems, including their implementation in multiple-processor environments, the impact of real-time digital signal processing, and extended prospects for sensing performance gesture.

Interactive Music Systems CD-ROM

This supplement to Interactive Music Systems contains audio and program examples that document a variety of systems and the music they produce. An extensive library of Macintosh software allows the user to experiment with or adapt existing interactive systems. Some parts of the library require the presence of underlying software environments, such as SmallTalk, LISP, or Opcode's Max language. The program discussed most extensively in the text, Robert Rowe's Cypher, will run on any Macintosh computer with no additional software required.

Both the book ($35) and the CD-ROM ($19.95) can be ordered from The MIT Press/55 Hayward Street/Cambridge, MA 02142/ USA

Date: Sat, 25 Jul 92 10:42:21 -0400
From: laske@edu.bu.cs (Otto Laske)
Subject: Understanding Music with AI

Dear Colleagues,

UMAI, "Understanding Music with AI" has appeared at the AAAI Press, distributed by The MIT Press. Its ISBN is 0-262-52170-9 Ballup. It has a foreword by Marvin Minsky, and comprises 21 chapters on music cognition and cognitive musicology.

Otto Laske

Machine Models of Music, From Minsky to Mozart, edited by Stephan Schwanauer and David Levitt

Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993
ISBN 0-262-19319-1 $45

Machine Models of Music brings together representative models ranging from Mozart's "Musical Dice Game" to a classical article by Marvin Minksy and current research to illustrate the rich impact that artificial intelligence has had on the understanding and composition of traditional music and to demonstrate the ways in which music can push the boundaries of traditional AI research.

The authors include prominent figures in linguistics (Johan Sundberg, Ray Jackendoff), computer science and AI (Fred Brooks, Marvin Minsky, Terry Winograd, Herbert Simon, Peter Neumann), music theory (Allen Forte), composition (Fred Lerdahl, Charles Ames), psychoacoustics (Christopher Longuet-Higgins, Jamshed Bharucha), and the odd middle ground of "computer music" (James Moorer, Hiller and Isaacson).


Computer Music: an Interactive Documentary

A new CD-ROM for Macintosh and Windows. Announcing the availability of an exciting new CD-ROM designed for use by introductory college students and in many schools in secondary and middle school courses in music and technology--as well as by home music enthusiasts.


* Performers * Researchers * Sound Designers * Engineers * Sampling * MIDI * Synthesis * Composition * Recording * Digital Recording & Editing. $49.95.

Cyberlearn. e-mail:


    Title: Electronic musician.
Publisher: [Oklahoma City, OK : Polyphony Pub. Co., c1985-
 Subjects: Electronic music--Periodicals.
Previous Title: Polyphony 0163-4534 (DLC)sn 78002183 (OCoLC)4380626
     ISSN: 0884-4720
For subscription requests, magazine contributions, and letters to the editor.

Title: Keyboard. Publisher: [Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Music Industry Publications] Subjects: Keyboard instruments--Periodicals.
Title: Keyboard. Publisher: [Cupertino, Calif. : GPI Publications], c1981- Publisher: Vol. 7, no. 7 (July 1981)- Previous Title: Contemporary keyboard 0361-5820 (DLC) 76641315 (OCoLC)2246955 ISSN: 0730-0158
Title: Computer music journal IMPR.: Cambridge, MA ISBN: 0148-9267


"Discrete-Time Signal Processing"
Allan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer
Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall, 1989
 SERIES:  Prentice Hall signal processing series
 ISBN:    0-13-216771-9

C LANGUAGE ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Paul M. Embree and Bruce Kimble Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990 xvi + 456 pp. + diskette. Price $44.00, 480pp. ISBN 13-133406-9
The book includes introductory chapters into DSP, programming tips for style and efficiency, chapters on filtering, FFT, image processing. All code in the text is included on the diskette (MS-DOS).
Introductory Digital Signal Processing with Computer Applications by Paul A. Lynn & Wolfgang Fuerst

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright 1989, latest reprint January 1992
ISBN 0-471-91564-5

First Principles of Discrete Systems and Digital Signal Processing by Robert D. Strum and Donald E. Kirk

ISBN: 0-201-09518-1 Addison-Wesley 1988

"PC-DSP" by Oktay Alkin (Prentice-Hall 1990, ISBN 0-13-655200-5).

This book is essentially a user's manual for the accompanying software package.

Here is an interactive software package for performing common digital signal processing design and analysis calculations quickly and easily. Within PC-DSP's menu-driven environment, you can generate, analyze, and process data without needing to remember command syntax.

Title: Digital processing of signals / Bernard Gold and Charles M. Rader, with chapters by Alan V. Oppenheim and Thomas G. Stockham, Jr. Publ: Malabar, Fla. : Krieger, 1983, c1969. Notes: Reprint. Originally published: New York : McGraw-Hill, 1969. (Lincoln Laboratory publications) Subjects: Signal processing--Digital techniques. ISBN: 0-89874-548-9
Title: An introduction to digital signal processing / John H. Karl. Publ: San Diego : Academic Press, c1989. Subjects: Signal processing--Digital techniques. ISBN: 0-12-398420-3
Title: Multirate digital signal processing / Ronald E. Crochiere, Lawrence R. Rabiner. Publ: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1983. Series: Prentice-Hall signal processing series ISBN: 0-13-605162-6
AUTH: MacNally, G. W. Title: Digital audio : recursive digital filtering for high quality audio signals / [by] G. W. McNally IMPR.: [S.l.] : Research Department, Engineering Division, The Brithish Broadcasting Corporation, 1981 * IV, 29 p. ; 30 cm
Title: Numerical recipes in C : the art of scientific computing / [by] William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky [and] William T. Vetterling IMPR.: Cambridge [etc.] : Cambridge U.P., 1988 * 2 dl. ; 25 cm ISBN: 0-521-35465-X m * 0-521-35746-2 m

Blesser, Barry and J. Kates. "Digital Processing in Audio Signals." In A. V. Oppenheim, ed. Applications of Digital Signal Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978.
Digital Signal Processing Committee of IEEE Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing Society, ed. Programs for Digital Signal Processing. New York: IEEE Press, 1979.

Title: Digital audio engineering : an anthology / John Strawn, editor ; with contributions by James F. McGill ... [et al.]. Publisher: Los Altos, Calif. : W. Kaufmann, c1985. Series: The Computer music and digital audio series, vol 3. Subjects: Sound--Recording and reproducing--Digital techniques. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) Contents: An introduction to digital recording and reproduction / J. F. McGill -- Limitations on the dynamic range of digitalized audio / R. Talambiras -- Architectural issues in the design of the systems concepts digital synthesizer / P. Samson -- The FRMbox, a modular digital music synthesizer / F. R. Moore -- The Lucasfilm digital audio facility / J. A. Moorer. ISBN: 0-86576-087-X
Title: The Science of Sound 2nd ed. / Thomas D. Rossing Publisher: Addison Wesley 1990 Contents: A book starting with the fundamentals of sound and hearing, contains in depth discussion of the acoustics of the various families of musical instruments plus a chapter about electronic instruments and synthesis. Includes some math but is generally readable on a "popular science" level. ISBN: 0201-15727-6
Title: Digital audio signal processing : an anthology / John Strawn, editor ; with contributions by F. Richard Moore ... [et al.]. Publisher: Los Altos, Calif. : W. Kaufmann, c1985. Series: The Computer music and digital audio series, vol 1. Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study. Subjects: Signal processing--Digital techniques. ISBN: 0-86576-082-9
I called the publisher (W. Kaufmann) about _Digital Audio Signal Processing_ and they referred me to A-R Editions, who shipped the book the next day! I had it in my grasp in well under a week, via UPS surface. The shipping charge was $2.50 if I recall correctly.

A-R Editions
801 Deming Way
Madison, Wisconsin 53717
608-836-9000 (They accept VISA orders)

Title: Synthesizer performance and real-time techniques / Jeff Pressing. Publisher: Madison, Wis. : A-R Editions, c1992. Subjects: Synthesizer (Musical instrument) Series: The Computer music and digital audio series ; v. 8 ISBN: 0-89579-257-5 : $49.95

"Interpolation and Decimation of Digital Signals - A Tutorial Review" by Ronald E. Crochiere and Lawrence R. Rabiner.

This paper is in Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 69, No. 3, 1981, pp. 300-331.


Computing in Musicology: A Directory of Research

ed. Walter B. Hewlett and Eleanor Selfridge-Field

Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities
525 Middlefield Road, Suite 120
Menlo Park, CA 94025
(415) 322-7050

Tuning In - Microtonality in Electronic Music, Scott R. Wilkinson. 1988. Hal Leonard Books. ISBN 0-88188-633-5. Contents: 1. Music, Mathematics and Microtuning 2. Acoustics and Psychoacoustics 3. The History of Tuning and Temperament 4. Using Tunings 5. Alternate Tunings and Scales 6. Tuning Electronic Instruments Foreword by Wendy Carlos. Bibliography, discography, etc. Includes details on tuning such instruments as DX7, EPS, etc. Hal Leonard Books 8112 W. Bluemound Road Milwaukee, WI 53213 $14.95 120 pgs., illustrated
The Well-Tempered Object Musical Applications of Object-Oriented Software Technology A Structured Anthology on Software Science and Systems based on Articles from Computer Music Journal 1980-89 Compiled and edited by Stephen Travis Pope Published by MIT Press, 1991
The Well-Tempered Object is based on a collection of articles that appeared in Computer Music Journal over the space of ten years relating to the application of object-oriented (OO) software technology--the most important new software engineering technology of the 1980s--to various musical applications. It consists of articles from Computer Music Journal 4(4), 8(5), 10(4) and 13(2) along with new chapters and updates to the original texts as addenda. The authors describe the application of OO technology to a wide range of areas of computer music and digital audio signal processing including music representation and composition, real- time performance, and digital signal processing (DSP). A number of popular OO programming languages are represented, including Lisp, Smalltalk-80, and ObjectiveC.


Music software, object-oriented programming, object-oriented software design, music representation, composition and performance, graphical user interfaces, DSP programming, single and multiple inheritance, Actors, OO user interface systems.

Flavors Band, FORMES, Kyma, Platypus, SoundKit, MusicKit, MODE, HyperScore ToolKit, CreationStation, Javelina, VDSP, TTrees, Nutation.

NeXT, Macintosh, Sun SPARCstation, LISP, Smalltalk-76 & -80, ObjectiveC, ACT-1, and DSP languages.

Language and methodology introductions, tool and application reports, extensive bibliographies, tutorials on OO programming and OO design.


Table of Contents


Compiled and Edited by Stephen Travis Pope (Editor of Computer Music Journal)

ISBN 0-262-16126-5, 200 pages, hardcover, US$ 30.00

Available from:
MIT Press, 55 Hayward St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 USA
Call (617) 625-8569 to order

TITLE: The language of electroacoustic music / ed. by Simon Emmerson IMPRINT: Basingstoke [etc.] : MacMillan Press, 1986 * VIII, 231 p. ; 24 cm NAMES: Emmerson, Simon ISBN: 0-333-39759-2 m * 0-333-39760-6 v p
Title: Composers and the computer / Curtis Roads, editor. Publisher: Los Altos, Calif. : W. Kaufmann, c1985. Series: The Computer music and digital audio series Subjects: Computer music--History and criticism. Subjects: Computer composition. ISBN: 0-86576-085-3
Title: Principles of digital audio / Ken C. Pohlmann. Publisher: Indianapolis, Ind., USA : H.W. Sams, 1989. Series: Howard W. Sams & Company audio library Subjects: sampling, quantizing, CD-I, DAT. ISBN: 0-672-22634-0 : $29.95, 474pp.
Title: Advanced digital audio / Ken Pohlmann, editor-in-chief. Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. SAMS, c1991. Subjects: Sound--Recording and reproducing--Digital techniques, DSP, HDTV. ISBN: 0-672-22768-1, 500pp.
Title: Handbook for Sound Engineers, The New Audio Encyclopedia / Glen M. Ballou, editor-in-chief Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. SAMS, c1991. Subjects: MIDI, sound, compact disks, sound system design ISBN: 0-672-22752-2, 1500pp.
Title: Modern Recording Techniques, 3rd ed. / D. M. Huber & R. A. Runstein Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. SAMS, Subjects: digital audio, recording ISBN: 0-672-22682-0, 400pp.
Title: Sound recording Handbook / John W. Woram Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. SAMS, Subjects: sound effects, noise reduction, SMPTE ISBN: 0-672-22583-2, 600pp.
Title: The compact disc : a handbook of theory and use / Ken C. Pohlmann. Series: The Computer music and digital audio series ; v. 5 Subjects: Compact discs. ISBN: 0-89579-228-1 $29.95 (paper) ISBN: 0-89579-234-6 $45.95 (cloth) 288 pages

Dexter Morrill and Rick Taube, A Little Book of Computer Music Instruments

Title: Introduction to computer music / Wayne Bateman. Publisher: New York : J. Wiley, c1980. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Subjects: Computer composition. ISBN: 0-471-05266-3 : $20.00 (est.)

MUSIC, SOUND and TECHNOLOGY, by John M. Eargle. (A mini-review)

is published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, copyright 1990. Its Library of Congress number is ML3805.E2 1990.

This little book turned up on the New Titles shelf in the Physics and Planetary Science Library at Pitt recently, and I've just finished going through it. It was a worthwhile enough bit of reading matter that I thought I'd bring it to the List's attention. This ain't no formal book review, but then again you all probably knew that already, knowing me, right?

MS&T is a fairly technical treatment of the acoustics of musical instruments, almost exlcusively focussing on acoustic instruments that are featured in the modern orchestral format (hence including a lot of unusual jazz instruments and percussion devices). It has fairly little math in it, and requires little or no math background to read, but it does not skimp on the ideas it brings across-- a novice who knew something about music, having read this book carefully, would come away with a better understanding of music and acoustics than many professional sound engineers probably have. (Based on my own experiences in the field, that is.) The style is a trifle dry, but is never so technical as to be unreadable. Examples from the public domain are liberally sprinkled throughout the book, and every chapter ends with a small bibliography and reference list, often including phonorecords.

The book begins with a brief review of the physical principles underlying the creation of sound: waves, sound pressure, units like the decibel, and so on. Virtually all of the math in the book is contained here, and it's on the high-school level, not too daunting. Some of the stuff is quite simple (masses on springs, pendula), but the reader suddenly finds himself absorbing stuff like "Relations between Direct and Reverberant Fields" --and understanding it clearly! The organization is clear, and every concept is prefaced with an explanation of why and where it's important. The next two chapters complete what Eargle considers the introductory part of the book; one is on the physiology of hearing and psychoacoustics, ranging from the localization of sound by the ears and head to the cultural biases inherent in judging what constitutes "consonance" and "dissonance," and the other is a brief but relatively well-thought-out review of temperament and tuning scales.

Chapters 4 through 9 are explanations of the physics of the usual sorts of sound generators one would find in orchestral of jazz music, and comparative studies of their pitch and loudness ranges, harmonic structure, and expressive characteristics in relation to the player's abilities. Strings, woodwinds, brasses, and percussion devices are given their own chapters, and keyboards are lumped together in one chapter, despite their differences in sound creation (which Eargle acknowledges but views as less important than their similarities). There are all sorts of little gems here-- how to change the speaking length of a trumpet, what happens to the frequency response of a piano when you close the lid, how a vibraphone differs from a marimba, etc. These chapters alone make the book worth a look.

Chapter 10 explains the philosophy behind the physical organization of musical ensembles. Why the first and second violins are sometimes seated together on the left, other times separated, and so on. Chapter 11 is a long and occasionally quite technical discussion of performance space design, and of the engineering of suitable halls for speech, music, and worship (there's a big section on church design). Chapters 12 and 13 discuss the principles of sound reinforcement and sound recording, with diagrams of speaker placements and microphone patterns abounding; this is getting into the sort of stuff that we tend to deal with regularly in EMUSIC-L, and we may have seen it elsewhere, but at this point we're used to Eargle's delivery and it's more clear than the usual drek in Home and Studio Recording. Some of the discussion is quite fascinating (is it better to be shamefully accurate or to correct for acoustic weaknesses when recording a symphony?), and the material is quite modern in its presentation: Eargle notes "with nostalgia" the passing of the vinyl LP from the scene. Overdubbing, Digital recording, and signal processing are touched on in a straightforward manner, from quad sound systems to delay and digital reverb. Chapter 14 is a primer on home audio, with explanations of the LP, cassette, and CD as playback media and commentary on speaker systems.

Chapter 15 is what you've all been waiting for, the "Overview of Music Synthesis." It covers the acoustics of transients, steady-state conditions, and tonal decay, ensemble considerations, working in the frequency vs. the time domain, and mentions modern developments such as sampling and MIDI. The entire section is only eight pages long, half of which are figures, but for the acoustic musician who's unfamiliar with and a bit scared of synthesizers it's a very easily digestible introduction. The acoustic musician sighs with relief and says, "So THAT'S all there is to it!" (Of course, it isn't, but it serves to keep the musician's mind open and unafraid of future learning.) The author seems to regard these instruments with some degree of wide-eyed wonder, and perhaps some nervous condescention as well, but he never fails to recognize them as instruments in their own right, deserving of attention beside the violins and piccolos. His only classicist comment, which is probably forgivable under the circumstances, is that "Electronically generated sounds do not necessarily have to imitate those of traditional instruments, but the sounds do have to fit into musical contexts." (We'll shelve arguments on that point for other posts, ok?) The last chapter is a brief touch upon active noise reduction principles and techniques, and probably should have been placed between chapters 13 and 14, but at least it's there, if only for six pages.

The book weighs in at 290 pages with a reasonably thorough index, and is published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, copyright 1990. Its Library of Congress number is ML3805.E2 1990. I consider it a refreshing change from the constant jabber about whether the Amiga can beat the Mac in the MIDI world or what goes into Differential Loop Modulation in the D-70. It's clear, readable, and has a lot of worthwhile data that can be put to good use by a clever musician, electronic or otherwise. Metlay says, check it out.



The July 1991 issue of Computer, (Vol 24, #7, ISSN 0018-9162), published by the IEEE Computer Society, has the title "Computer Generated Music", and a whole bunch of neat articles.

Titles of articles, are followed by Authors, then a description. (taken from the table of contents)

Guest Editor's Introduction: Computer Generated Music Denis L. Baggi

Formula: A Programming Language for Expressive Computer Music David P. Anderson and Ron Kuivila

Formula, a language for controlling synthesizers, can model the expressiveness of a human performance. It supports algorithmic composition, interactive performance, and programmed interpretation of traditional scores.
Recombinant Music: Using the Computer to Explore Musical Style David Cope
A Computer program that creates new but stylistically recognizable music from existing works offers insights into the elusive phenomenon of musical style.
Toward an Expert System for Expressive Musical Performance Margaret L. Johnson
An expert system processes the melodies of Bach fugues using a model that recognizes rhythmic patterns. It outputs instructions that tell performers how to articulate the melodies.
Fugue: A Functional Language for Sound Synthesis Roger B. Dannenberg, Christopher Lee Fraley, and Peter Velikonja
Fugue provides functions to create and manipulate sounds as abstract, immutable objects. The interactive language supports behavioral abstraction, so composers can manage complex musical structures.
A Computer Music System that Follows a Human Conductor Hideyuki Morita, Shuji Hashimoto, and Sadamu Ohteru
An electronic orchestra with a complex performance database and MIDI controllers responds to the gestures of a conductor through a CCD camera and a sensor glove.
Project Overviews: Current Research in Computer Generated Music Stephen W. Smoliar, Goffredo Haus, Alberto Sametti, Denis L. Baggi, Antonio Camurri, Corrado Canepa, Marcello Frixione, Renato Zaccaria, Yap Siong Chua, and Robert Keefe
Six overviews reflect varied ongoing research. Reporting from such diverse locales as Singapore, Europe, and the US, the authors explore the spheres of computer-aided composition, synthesis of musical scores, computer simulation, and composing by musical analog.

The six overviews look more interesting than the description. Of course, all of the above articles have references, so you can go look up more information.

Standards Standard Music Description Language

Also, Coming Fall 1991:

Readings in Computer-Generated Music edited by Denis Baggi

This new tutorial is a collection of 11 important articles, reprinted from the July 1991 special issue of _Computer_ on computer- generated music, plus a number of important articles omitted due to space limitations. These papers include all the articles from this issue either in their entirety or in an expanded version. A companion CD and audiocassette will also be available for sale.

250 pages, November. 1991, hardbound, catalog No. 2367

Title: The Byte book of computer music / edited by Christopher P. Morgan. Publisher: Peterborough, N.H. : Byte Books, c1979. Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study. Computer composition. ISBN: 0-931718-11-2
Title: Electronic music / Andy Mackay. Publisher: Minneapolis, Minn. : Control Data Publishing, 1981. Series Name: The Covent Garden music guides ; No. 2 Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. Electronic music--History and criticism. ISBN: 0-89893-504-0 : $19.95 ISBN: 0-89893-302-1 (pbk.) : $10.95
Title: Electronic music : systems, techniques, and controls / Allen Strange ; forward by Gordon Mumma. Publisher: Dubuque, Iowa : W.C. Brown Co., c1983. Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study. Electronic composition. ISBN: 0-697-03602-2 (pbk.)
Title: Electronic music dictionary : a glossary of the specialized terms relating to the music and sound technology of today / by Bo Tomlyn & Steve Leonard. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. : H. Leonard Books, c1988. Subjects: Electronic music--Dictionaries. ISBN: 0-88188-904-0 : $5.95
Title: The electronic music dictionary / by W.D. Coakley. Publisher: Lantana, Fla. (315 North Lake Drive, Suite 16, Lantana, Florida 33462) : W.D. Coakley, c1988. Subjects: Electronic music--Dictionaries.
Title: A Dictionary of electronic and computer music technology : instruments, terms, techniques / Richard Dobson. Publisher: Oxford University Press, 1992 Subjects: Electronic music --Dictionaries. Computer music --Dictionaries. ISBN: 0193113449
Title: Dictionary of musical technology / Tristram Cary. Publisher: Greenwood Press, New York 1992. Subjects: Electronic music --Dictionaries. Computer music --Dictionaries. ISBN: 0313286949 (alk. paper)
Title: Electronic music production / by Alan Douglas. Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. : Tab Books, c1982. Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. Electronic music--History and criticism. ISBN: 0-8306-1418-4 (pbk.) : $7.95
Title: The electronic musician's dictionary / Craig Anderton. Publisher: New York : Amsco Publications : Exclusive distributors Music Sales Corp., c1988. Subjects: Electronic music--Dictionaries. ISBN: 0-8256-1125-3
Title: Multi-track recording / edited by Dominic Milano from the pages of Keyboard magazine. Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1988. Series: The Keyboard magazine basic library (Keyboard synthesizer library) Subjects: Sound--Recording and reproducing. ISBN: 0-88188-552-5 (pbk.) : $12.95
Title: Electronic music reports / Institute of Sonology at Utrecht University IMPR.: Utrecht University
Title: Electronic music synthesis; concepts, facilities, techniques [by] Hubert S. Howe, Jr. Publisher: New York, W. W. Norton [1975] Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study. Subjects: Music--Acoustics and physics. Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic. Subjects: Computer composition. ISBN: 0-393-09257-3
Title: Electronic music : a listener's guide / Elliott Schwartz Publisher: New York : Da Capo Press, 1989, c1975. Series: Da Capo Press music reprint series Subjects: Electronic music--History and criticism. ISBN: 0-306-76260-9 : $29.50
Piet van Oostrum, Dept of Computer Science, Utrecht University
Padualaan 14, P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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